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- , , , , : Geotrupes mutator, Onthophagus illyricus, O. vertici cornis, O. fracticornis, O. lemur, O. coenobita, O. ruficapillus, O. grosse punctatus, O. furcatus, Caccobius schreberi, Pleurophorus caesus, P. panno nicus, Oxyomus sylvestris, Coprimorphus scrutator, Euorodalus coenosus, Plagiogonus putridus, Biralus satellitus, Chilothorax melanostictus, Ch. stic ticus, Melinopterus reyi, Amidorus obscurus, Esymus merdarius, Phalacro notus biguttatus, Limarus maculatus, Aphodius conjugatus, Nialus varians, Calamosternus granarius, Anoxia pilosa, Rhizotrogus aestivus, Gnorimus variabilis, Osmoderma barnabita, Protaetia affinis, Tropinota hirta.

, .

-. , , ;

- / : Lucanus ibericus, Eulasia bombyliformis, E. arctos, Pygorpleurus psilotrichia, Scarabaeus armeniacus, Sisyphus schaefferi boschniaki, Onthophagus amyn tas alces, O. atramentarius, O. sericatus, O. fissicornis, O. lucidus, O. parma tus, O. ponticus, O. suturellus, O. truchmenus, Caccobius histeroides, Paroniticellus festivus, Cheironitis pamphilius, Onitis damoetas, Ataenius horticola, Bodilus punctipennis, B. circumcinctus, Mendidius bispinifrons, M. multiplex, Loraphodius suarius, Liothorax kraatzi, Biralus menetriesi, Polyphylla olivieri, P. adspersa, Holochellus vernus, Maladera punctatissima, Anomala splendida, Blitopertha nigripennis, Brancoplia leucaspis, Pentodon idiota, Protaetia trojana, P. cuprina, Oxythyrea albopicta.

- , . , , ;

- , , . ( Protaetia metallica volhyni ensis, Monotropus): Aesalus ulanovskii, Geotrupes olgae, Loraphodius latisulcus, Holochelus subseriatus, Taxipertha arenicola, Protaetia speciosa.

( - ). (Lethrotrypes, Serraphodius) . : (1) ( ) P. caucasicus, Onthophagus fortigibber, Gymnopleurus geoffroyi serratus, Psammodius caucasicus, Acrossus plani collis, Colobopterus brignolii, Nimbus obliteratus, Neagolius abchasicus, Parammoecius asphaltinus, Holochellus brenskei, Hoplia polinosa, Cetonia aurata pallida;

(2) ( .) Platycerus primigenus, Amphimallon solstitialis parumsetosus, Mono tropus fausti, Hoplia ciscaucasica, Anisoplia signata;

(3) Trypocopris inermis, A. bolognai, Serraphodius lederi, S. leisteri, S.

circassicus, Aphodius swaneticus, Parammoecius brevithorax, Melolontha permira, Anisoplia ungulata, Gnorimus bartelsi;

(4) Platycerus perplexus, Trypocopris caspius, Acrossus gagatinus, Holochelus arcilabris, Adoretus discolor, Protaetia schamil;

(5) ( , ..) Anomala dubia abchasica, Anisoplia austriaca major, A. falder manni, A. parva, Protaetia ungarica armeniaca.

( )

Communities of soil invertebrates in Pseudotsuga menziesii stands, in Skolivski Beskydy area (Ukrainian Carpathians) , . , ( .). , (, ) c (Pseudotsuga menziesii).

. , , , .

90 , ( 850 ...) ( . 1998;

2008). 36 . 20 ( . 1998). (20002004 .) 6 100 0.6 1.5 . 100- 3839 , 48 , 460860 3/.

( 30 , ). (520 ./2 24.213 /2) (59.04 .

./2 0.919 /2). (is), ( 2004), 1 2 141, 125 3 80 . 77% , 6% 17% .

(39% ), (Lithobiomorpha 14%, Geophilomorpha 5%) (Brachydesmus superus, Lepto phyllum nanum, Unciger foetidus) 9%, , (Dendrobaena octaedra, D. alpina) 9%. (7 , 9%) Oxychilus orientalis, Macrogastra latestriata, M. tumida, Discus perspectivus, Vitrea crystallina, Succinella oblonga Helix pomatia. : (Oniscoidea), (Aranei), (Athous subfuscus A. mollis), (Otior rhynchus ovatus), (Carabus zawadzkii Pterostichus niger), (Cantharidae), (Neodiprion sertifer), (Formicidae, Myrmica laevinodis), (Rhagion idae), .

90% 30% , ( 40 ). (67% 69% ), 27 28%, 6 4% .

8090% , 1020%. ( 90%), Mesostigmata (Epicriidae, Parasitidae, Veigaiaidae, Rhodacaridae, Zerconidae, Trachytidae, Uropod dae). e:

Oppiidae (53%), Brachychthoniidae (9%), Tectocepheidae (9%), Hypochthoniidae (3%), Nothridae (3%), Hermanniidae (4%), Chamobatidae (3%), Mycobatidae (3%), Liacaridae (3%), Haplozetidae (3%), Phthiracaridae (2%), .

Protaphorura (7%), Mesaphorura (10%), Friesea (7%), Ceratophysella (7%), Folsomia (8%), Isotomiella (23%), Parisotoma (12%), Tomocerus (4%), Pogonognath ellus (9%), Lepidocyrtus (8%), Sphaeridia (4%), Neelus (3%). , 90%, 10%.

/2. 74% , 22%, 4%. 70% , 78% .

, . .

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SOIL ANIMALS IN HIGH

MOUNTAINS OF WESTERN MONGOLIA

ational University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, bayartogtokh@num.edu.mn The present investigation was concerned on the communities of selected groups of soil arthropods, such as oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida), ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae);

darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the subfamily Aphodinae of the family lamellicorn beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) as well as few other groups in the forest-steppe junctions in Mongol Altai Mountains, located in western Mongolia.

The diversity of oribatid species differ greatly between different habitats and it is revealed that each plot of the various study sites has different species composition. However, it should note that their differences in species richness were not significant among the same type of habitats in different study sites.

Most diverse communities occur in forest-interior and forest-edge sites, whereas the species-poor habitats were mountain-steppes.

Community structure of soil animals was also markedly different in forest-interior, forest-edge and mountain-steppe soils. Communities of forest interior plots were relatively similar to those of forest-edge habitats, though the species richness and population density are relatively lower. The communities of mountain-steppe soils are generally species poor and sparse in abundance, and could be characterized as less diverse communities. Except forest-interior plots, the soil mite fauna of most studied habitats show a few abundant species and numerous rare species. Thus, all main habitats and majority of study plots show that their oribatid mite communities are formed by large number of rare species and a few dominating species.

The dominant groups of the medium to large-sized soil animal communities were worms of the family Enchytraeidae, larval Diptera and adult Araneida. Enchytraeids were found in 14 plots except majority of mountain-steppe plots, and it is very highly accounted in several forest interior plots and one forest-edge plot. Most of mountain-steppe plots were lacking enchytraeids, excepting two plots, which contain very few individuals.

The beetles of different families, ants, larval hemipterans, homopterans, lepidopterans and spider communities were nearly similar in most plots with few exceptions, and most of these groups are rarely and infrequently occurred in majority of study plots. Grasshoppers and other orthopteran insects were very rare in most study sites, and we found only four species with few individuals in some of mountain-steppe plots at the final stage of our field research.

Analyses of correlations between soil moisture, and soil animal diversity and abundance showed strong positive correlations. The bulk density of soil was negatively related with both abundance and species richness of soil animals. Grazing regulates soil and vegetation processes in pasturelands, especially in grasslands. Herbivore animals influence N mineralization directly by deposition of urine and feces, alter soil compaction by trampling, and reduce soil moisture (Day & Delting 1990;

Bargett et al. 1998;

Dombos 2001). This study also showed that grazing of domestic herbivore has an effect on diversity and abundance of soil animals as revealed by correlation analysis. This observation support that oribatid mites are sensitive to changes in soil structure, as reported by Cole et al. (2008), and the macrofaunal community is also more diverse in less grazed pastures, but further work with more extensive sampling data would be justified.

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18.09.2011. 60x90/16. 10 ..

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