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Tuomisto H. A diversity of beta diversities: straightening up a concept gone awry. Part 2. Quantifying beta diversity and related phenomena. Ecography, 2010b, 33, р. 23–45.
Key words: functional diversity, true diversity, dissimilarity based methods, Kosman's assignment based measures, virulence analysis tools.
BREEDING FOR DISEASE RESISTANCES
IN WINTER RYEWinter rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important crop in Germany, Poland, Russia, Belorussia, Ukraine, the Scandinavian and Baltic countries used for bread making, feeding, and bioenergy production. Population and hybrid cultivars are for commercial growing. In Germany, about 60% of the total rye acreage are grown by hybrids (Geiger and Miedaner, 2009). Although rye is known to be rather resistant to abiotic and biotic stress factors, several pathogens are reducing grain yield and the quality of the harvest. Among these, the biotrophic fungi leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desmaz.) and stem rust (P. graminis F. sp. secalis Eriks. & E. Henn) and the necrotrophic fungi ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.:Fr.) Tul.) and Fusarium head blight (FHB, Fusarium spp.) are the most important. Due to mycotoxin concerns, strict regulations exist in the European Union for ergot incidence (0,05% for human consumption), deoxynivalenol (1,25 mg kg-1 in uncleaned cereals), and zearalenone (0,1 mg kg-1). For the biotrophic pathogens qualitative and quantitative resistances were reported, whereas for ergot and FHB only quantitative resistances are available (for definitions see Miedaner and Korzun, 2012).
Leaf rust may occur in Central Europe as early as opportunity for durable resistances (Miedaner et al., shortly after flowering, then reducing thousand-grain 2012). Ergot is still a problem when it is wet during weight significantly. Stem rust occurs only when it is flowering. Inoculum is available everywhere and low dry and hot during early summer, preferably in the amount of pollen shedding of a cultivar increases the more continental regions. Resistances to leaf and stem probability of infection (Miedaner et al., 2010a). A rust are usually not available in German populations, possibility for control is, therefore, the use of highly but some East European populations harbor them effective restorer genes in hybrid cultivars that secure with high frequencies. These resistances are mainly a high amount of pollen. Additionally, physiological race-specific and it could be shown for leaf rust resistance exists as could be shown by significant that the composition of the rust populations highly quantitative variation among pollen-sterile materials varied according to location and year reducing the (Miedaner et al., 2010b). FHB occurs in rye in much Sharifi K., Davari M., Khodaparast S. A. First report of powdery mildew caused by erysiphe syringae japonicae on jasminum in the world from Northwestern Iran.
lower incidence than in wheat, but still mycotoxins (FHB) quantitative variation, respectively, is already are detectable in the harvest. Because 23% of the rye available that can be further improved by recurrent harvest in Germany is used for baking and 30% for selection procedures. For monogenic resistances, feeding, at least a moderate FHB resistance should be implementation of resistance into elite hybrid implemented in commercial cultivars. breeding programs can be easily done by backcrossing.
Breeding to disease resistances consists of three For quantitative resistances, a multi-stage selection stages: (1) identification of resistance sources, (2) within elite populations with a steady influx of effective implementation of resistances into elite improved materials might be the most promising way.
breeding programs, (3) buildup of resistant cultivars. For combining the best components to a new, more Each of these steps needs special knowledge and resistant variety gene action must be considered. For prerequisites. Amongst the most important are the population cultivars, dominantly inherited resistance knowledge of parameters important for breeding genes, like those for leaf and stem rust, are best suited.
(genetic and non-genetic variation, heritability, Ergot and FHB resistances are inherited additively, i. e.
amount of heterosis) and effective disease assessment both gene pools must be improved to result in a better techniques. In hybrid rye, resistance breeding is hybrid. FHB resistance should be selected for both, simplified by using inbred lines for reproducible line and testcross performance caused by a missing testing, high genotypic variance between these lines, correlation. For reducing ergot, introgression of non the targeted combination of selected lines, and the adapted genes for pollen-fertility restoration will lead possibility to introgress major genes by backcrossing. to the fastest success. Improving disease resistance is a Population cultivars are more likely to harbor steady challenge for the rye breeder.
resistances accumulated by natural selection caused by their outcrossing nature. For ergot and FHB in adapted Key words: ergot, Fusarium head blight, hybrid rye, leaf Central European populations small (ergot) and large rust, stem rust.
References Geiger H. H., Miedaner T. Rye Breeding. In: M. J. Carena (ed.), 2009: Cereals (Handbook of Plant Breeding), pP. 157– 181. Springer, 1st edition, ISBN 0387722947.
Miedaner T., Korzun V. Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in wheat and barley breeding // Phytopathology, 2012, 102, p. 560–566.
Miedaner T., Klocke B., Flath K., Geiger H. H., Weber W. E. Diversity, spatial variation, and temporal dynamics of virulences in the German leaf rust (Puccinia recondita F. sp. secalis) population in winter rye // European J. of Plant Pathology, 2012, 132, р. 23–35.
Miedaner T., Mirdita V., Rodemann B., Drobeck T., Rentel D. Genetic variation of winter rye cultivars for their ergot (Claviceps purpurea) reaction tested in a field design with minimized interplot interference // Plant Breeding, 2010a, 129, p. 58–62.
Miedaner T., Dnicke S., Schmiedchen B., Wilde P., Wortmann H., Dhillon B. S., Geiger H. H., Mirdita V. Genetic variation for ergot (Claviceps purpurea) resistance and alkaloid concentrations in cytoplasmic-male sterile winter rye under pollen isolation // Euphytica, 2010b, 173, р. 299–306.
FIRST REPORT OF POWDERY MILDEW CAUSED
BY ERYSIPHE SYRINGAE JAPONICAE ON JASMINUM
IN THE WORLD FROM NORTHWESTERN IRAN1 Depatment of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, 3 Depatment of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran Jasmine is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae) contains some 200 species.
Jasmines are widely cultivated for the characteristic fragrance of their flowers and its leaves are useful for treating diseases of the mouth and teeth, 48 µm, sessile or short-stalked, 5-8 spored;
ascospores especially for toothaches as well as essential oil in aromatherapy. Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. is well taxonomy around Erysiphe syringae and E. syringae known as a glabrous twining shrub widely grown japonicae is complicated and confusing. Characteristic in gardens throughout Iran. Jasmines are native to collections of the North-American E. syringae with tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and usually hyaline appendages only pigmented at the Australasia. Their center of diversity is in South Asia very base and with usually 3-6 spored asci are easily and Southeast Asia. J. grandiflorum are originally distinguishable from typical collections of Asian native species to Iran. During the summer and fall E. syringae japonicae with appendages that are more of 2012, severe symptoms of powdery mildew were pigmented, mostly thick-walled throughout and with observed in samples collected. Disease symptoms asci that are 5-8 spored (Braun and Cook, 2012).
included white mycelium amphigenous, effuse or in Also E. ligustri is genetically very close to E. syringae patches, evanescent to almost persistent on leaves, japonicae, but differs in forming three-dimentionally Chasmothecia scattered to gregarious, mostly 75-115 branched chasmothecial appendages. This is the first µm diam., appendages equatorial, stiff, straight to report of powdery mildew caused by E. syringae somewhat curved, usually 0,75-1,25 times as long as the japonicae on Jasminum in Iran as well as worldwide.
diam. of the chasmothecium, apices 4-6 times tightly and regularly dichotomously branched strictly in two Key words: plant pathology, taxonomy, erysiphales, dimensions, occasionally deeply forked, tips recurved;
powdery mildew, new host.
asci 3-10, broadly ellipsoid-obovoid, 35-57,6 33,
PROBLEMS IN PREVENTING HIGH FUSARIUM
AND FUSARIUM TOXIN LEVELS IN CEREALS
IN NORTHERN EUROPE AS COMPARED
TO AFRICADON and T-2/HT-2 levels and the levels of F. graminearum and F. langsethiae have been increasing in cereals in northern Europe, especially in oats. In Africa fumonisins produced by F. verticillioides are the most important Fusarium toxins in cereals, especially in maize.
Key words: mycotoxins, Fusarium graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. verticillioides, northern Europe, Africa.
Detection and quantification of Fusarium detection problems can be solved by developing species is important e. g. in breeding and fungicide quantitative PCR methods and other molecular testing and it can also be used for estimating the methods, by which it is also possible to quantify risk for mycotoxins before and after harvesting. It is fungal biomass and to detect different chemotypes.
relatively easy to detect Fusarium head blight caused Alternatively, Fusarium species can be detected by F. graminarum and F. culmorum in wheat, but by measuring mycotoxins, but chromatographic it is difficult to detect Fusarium head blight in oats methods are expensive and slow, while there are often and barley. The symptoms of T-2 toxin-producing specificity problems with antibody based detection F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides are difficult to methods.
In Northern Europe the highest mycotoxin levels by Fusarium species, can be divided to type A (e. g.
are found in oats (e. g. Yli-Mattila et al., 2009). The T-2 and HT-2 toxins and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS)) Yli-Mattila T., Hussien T. Problems in preventing high Fusarium and Fusarium toxin levels in cereals in northern Europe as compared to Africa and B (e. g. deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol small amounts of T-2 and HT-2 (Yli-Mattila, 2010).
(NIV)) trichothecenes and their mono- and di- NIV is the main mycotoxin produced by F. poae.
acetylated derivatives (e. g. 3ADON, 15ADON and F. langsethiae is a new European species of type A fusarenon X). Most of the genes for trichothecene trichothecene producer. F. langsethiae can be divided synthesis are situated in a big cluster in the fungal into two lineages. T-2-producing F. sibiricum isolates, F. graminearum is the main DON-producer in long TG repeat in ribosomal IGS region. F. sibiricum Europe. DON-contaminated feed and food can cause is distributed in Siberia and Russian Far East with two vomiting syndrome in animals and humans (D’Mello single isolates from Norway and Iran. So, it is probable et al., 1999). For DON the highest allowed level in that the actual distribution of F. sibiricum will be European Union (EU) for human food is 1750 ppb in much larger than the present known distribution (Yli oats, durum wheat and maize and 1250 ppb in most Mattila et al., 2011).
other cereals. For baby food the levels are lower and Fumonisins are mainly produced by Fusarium European regulations for NIV, T-2 and HT-2 occurrence of fumonisins in home-grown corn toxins are under evaluation. The maximum limit of was associated with the high rate of human DON in Russia and China is 1000 ppb for several esophageal cancer in Iran (Shephard et al., 2000).
cereals used for human food. In Japan the provisional The International Agency for Research on Cancer limit for DON in wheat is 1100 ppb. In Russia the (IARC) considers fumonisins as possibly carcinogens maximal limit of T-2 toxin in cereals is 100 ppb. to humans. Corn-based food products are the main Mycotoxin NIV is not regulated anywhere. For feed source of fumonisins (Covarelli et al., 2011).
the maximum limit of DON in EU is 900-12000 ppb. In East Africa DON was detected in wheat with There have been several surveys of T-2 and HT-2 levels up to 2,34 mg/kg in wheat (Okoth, 2012). The toxins in northern Europe during the last 25 years levels of fumonisins in maize can be as high as 3,6-11, (Edwards et al., 2009;
Yli-Mattila, 2010). In these mg/kg in East Africa (Kedera, 1999).
surveys high T-2/HT-2 levels have most often been T-2 toxin-producing Fusarium species are In Denmark highest DON levels were found in oats. The detection problems of T-2 toxin producing wheat (Nielsen et al., 2011), while in other Nordic species can be solved by developing quantitative PCR countries the highest DON levels have been found methods and other molecular methods, by which it is in oats during the last years. This has also resulted also possible to quantify fungal biomass and to detect lower germination percentages in oats seeds. In 2012 different chemotypes. It is also possible to use primers, the exceptionally high DON levels in oats (Cerveg which are specific for several closely related Fusarium database/ Veli Hietaniemi) were connected to the species producing the same toxins. Alternatively, exceptionally high precipitation levels and delayed Fusarium species can be detected by measuring harvesting in Finland. In 2000 high NIV levels (200- mycotoxins, but chromatographic methods are 3700 ppb) were also detected in barley in Finland and expensive and slow, while there are often specificity in north-western Russia (Yli-Mattila et al., 2002). problems with antibody based detection methods.
The greatest tragedy due to the Fusarium toxins in In Africa the trichothecenes in cereals are Europe took place in former Soviet Union before and mainly produced by members of the Fusarium during World War II, when harvesting was delayed. graminearum species complex. Food quality in The alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA) outbreaks in African countries is threatened by lack of financial Russia were probably due to T-2 toxin-producing resources, infrastructure, climate change, lack Fusarium species and similar symptoms were obtained of technological knowledge, inappropriate crop by treatment of extracts from ATA-associated grain varieties, poor harvesting methodologies, and bad samples or pure cultures of F. sporotrichioides storage conditions. In Europe and Asia there are (Sarkisov, 1954;
Desjardins, 2006). limits for many mycotoxins in crops, which cause a is prevalent in Scandinavia, Finland and north- and Asian countries. Maize and wheat are the most western Russia, while the 15ADON chemotype of important crops in Africa and they are susceptible to F. graminearum is more common in the more southern contamination by Fusarium toxins, such as fumonisins areas in Europe and China. Both chemotypes of and trichothecenes.
F. graminearum are common in the Russian Far East Fumonisins are mainly produced by Fusarium together with the 3ADON chemotype of F. ussurianum verticillioides and F. proliferatumin areas with high and the 15ADON chemotype of F. vorosii. F. poae and temperature. Corn-based food products have a higher F. sporotrichioides belong to type A trichothecene risk for Fusarium mycotoxins than food products producers, but only a few F. poae isolates can produce from other cereals (Covarelli et al., 2011).
References Cerveg database/Veli Hietaniemi. https://portal. mtt. fi/portal/page/portal/kasper/pelto/peltopalvelut/cerveg, (in Finnish).
Covarelli L., Beccari G., Salvi S. Infection by mycotoxigenic fungal species and mycotoxin contamination of maize grain in Umbria, central Italy // Food and Chemical. Toxicology, 2011, 49 (9), p. 2365–2369.
Desjardins A. E. Fusarium Mycotoxins Chemistry, Genetics and Biology. The American Phytopathological Society, St.
Paul, Minnesota, USA, 2006.
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Edwards S. G., Barrter-Guillot B., Clasen P. E.,Hietaniemi V., Pettersson H. Emerging issues of HT-2 and T-2 toxins in European cereal production // World Mycotoxin J., 2009, 2, p. 173–179.
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Kedera C. J., Plattner R. D., Desjardins A. E. Incidence of Fusarium spp. and levels of fumonisin B1 in maize in western Kenya // Applied and Environ. Microbiol., 1999, 65, p. 41–4.
McCormick S., Stanley A. M., Stover Ni. A., Alexander N. J. Trichothecenes: From Simple to Complex Mycotoxins // Toxins, 2011, 3, p. 802–814.
Nielsen L. K., Jensen J. D., Nielsen G. C., Jensen J. E., Spliid N. H., Thomsen I. K., Justesen A. F., Collinge D. B., Jorgensen L. N. Fusarium head blight of cereals in Denmark: Species complex and related mycotoxins // Phytopathology, 2011, 101, p. 960–969.
Okoth S., Nyongesa B., Ayugi V., Kang’ethe E., Korhonen H., Joutsjoki V. Toxigenic potential of Aspergillus species occurring on Maize Kernels from Two Agro-Ecological Zones in Kenya // Toxins, 2012, 4, p. 991–100.
Sarkisov A. K. Mycotoxicoses. Agricultural State Publishing House, Moscow, Russia (in Russian), 1954.
Shephard G. S., Marasas W. F., Leggott N. L., Yazdanpanah H., Rahimian H., Safavi N. Natural occurrence of fumonisins in corn from Iran // J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2000, 48, p. 1860–1864.
Yli-Mattila T., Paavanen-Huhtala S., Parikka P., Konstantinova P., Gagkaeva T., Eskola M., Rizzo A. Occurrence of Fusarium fungi and their toxins in Finnish cereals in 1998 and 2000 // J. of Applied Genetics, 2002, 43A, p. 207–214.
Yli-Mattila T., Parikka P., Lahtinen T., Ramo S., Kokkonen M., Rizzo A., Jestoi M., Hietaniemi V., In Gherbawy, Y, Mach, R. L, Rai, M. (Eds.), Fusarium DNA levels in Finnish cereal grains, Current Advances in Molecular Mycology, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, USA, 2009, p. 107–138.
Yli-Mattila T. Ecology and evolution of toxigenic Fusarium species in cereals in northern Europe and Asia // J. of Plant Pathology, 2010, 92, p. 7–18.
Yli-Mattila T., Ward T., O’Donnel, K., Proctor R. H., Burkin A., Kononenko G., Gavrilova O., Aoki T., McCormick S. P., Gagkaeva T. F. sibiricum sp. nov;
a novel type A trichothecene-producing Fusarium from northern Asia closely related to F. sporotrichioides and F. Langsethiae // Inter. J. of Food Microbiology, 2011, 147, p. 58–68.