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BIOMASS ALLOCATION AND REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL

IN NATIVE AND ALIEN IMPATIENS SPECIES (BALSAMINACEAE)

IN EASTERN EUROPE

Golivets .

Megapolis Ecomonitoring and Biodiversity Research Centre, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine;

marina.golivets@gmail.com The two representatives of the genus Impatiens L. native I. noli-tangere L.

and alien I. parviflora DC. originating from Central and Eastern Asia offer excellent examples of species opposite in terms of their current population state.

I. noli-tangere, which is the only indigenous species from the Balsaminaceae family in Eastern Europe, has already disappeared from many sites of its previous occurrence. Those populations of the native species, which have survived till today, are often of a small size;

during the vegetation period severe damages by insects and a low number of flowering individuals are usually observed (personal observations). On the other hand, I. parviflora, a neophyte introduced to Europe in the 19th century, has become the most successful herbaceous invader of Euro pean forests. Due to the similarity of ecological requirements and, thereby, co occurrence of the two species, the fact of competitive replacement of I. noli tangere by its exotic congener has been repeatedly documented (Trepl, 1984;

Falinski, 1998). At the same time, there are studies, which name other reasons for I. noli-tangere mass population decline as a decrease in soil moisture (Tich, 1997), and indicate the dissimilarity of the two species in respect of soil moisture index, which excludes the possibility of I. parviflora invasion throughout the whole ecological range of native I. noli-tangere (Godefroid, Koedam, 2010).

Thus, the question of competitive behavior of the native and the invasive Impa tiens species stays open and requires further exploration.

Biomass allocation and reproductive potential are the most important bio logical traits being in charge of species invasiveness. Both studied species are therophytes, which do not form persistent soil seed banks and establishment of the next generation solely depends on the amount of germinable seeds produced the previous year. Therefore, seed productivity is an extremely important charac teristic for predicting the outcomes of I. parviflora penetration into the native habitats of the autochthonous I. noli-tangere. The aims of this study were: i) to detect the differences in biomass allocation among I. noli-tangere and I. par viflora, while growing in mixed stands;

ii) to compare the patterns of biomass allocation among samples of I. parviflora taken from different habitat types;

iii) to assess the seed productivity of the two species;

iv) to argue the possibility of competitive replacement of native I. noli-tangere by invasive I. parviflora.

During period from the middle of June till the middle of July three samples of I. noli-tangere and three samples I. parviflora, each containing 10 randomly selected individuals, were collected from three localities: Park-Monument of Park-Garden Art Theophania (50o20.232N, 30o29.405E), National Nature Park Holosiivskyi (50o22.427N, 30o29.127E), Sviatoshynski Ponds (50o46.342N, 30o30.647E). At the first site the species occurred in a valley in the oak-hornbeam-alder forest, at the second in the oak-maple-ash forest and at the third in the pine-oak forest. Additional two samples of I. parviflora were collected in the oak-hornbeam forest in the Theophania (50o20.359N, 30o29.148E). Leaves, stems, fruits (including flower buds, flowers and pods) and roots were separated, dried for two weeks in a ventilated room and then weighted.

When it was possible, fresh weight of plants parts was measured as well. The measurements included: stem length (SL), leaf weight, stem weight, fruit weight and root weight. Stem length was measured as the distance between the root sys tem and the apical growing tip. The number of flower buds, flowers and pods were counted on each plant. Seed productivity (SP) was assessed as the total number of fruits multiplied by the average number of seeds per pod, which was estimated for each locality. Leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR), fruit weight ratio (FWR) and total dry plant biomass (TDB) were calculated after the measurement had been done.

The mean numbers of the seven traits compared among I. noli-tangere and I.

parviflora sample plants collected from the three localities of the species common occurrence are shown in the table. Regardless the similarity of life histories and ecological requirements between the two Impatiens species, there is a number of distinctive differences in the patterns of biomass allocation and their reproductive characteristics. In the all three samples the I. noli-tangere individuals were on average higher than those of I. parviflora. The second advantage of I. noli tangere was significantly higher seed productivity compared to I. parviflora and, similarly, a higher FWR. I. parviflora allocated more biomass to leaves and roots (higher LWR and RWR) and less to stems (lower SWR) compared to I. noli tangere. The average total weight of I. parviflora was considerably higher than that of I. noli-tangere in the Theophania and Holosiivskyi samples and slightly higher in the sample taken from the forest near the Sviatoshynski Ponds.

Interestingly, the difference in the patterns of biomass allocation between the two species decreased along the gradient of soil moisture. In the waterlogged valley in the oak-hornbeam-alder forest, where there were the optimal growing conditions for I. noli-tangere, the two species had quite similar biomass alloca tion patterns and the sum of absolute differences between the four ratios was 0,085. Then, in the oak-hornbeam-alder forest the sum was 0,123 and in the oak pine forest it was as high as 0,301. This tendency, together with low seed produc tivity of I. parviflora shows that it is unlikely for the invader to outperform the native congener at least in the habitats with a high level of soil moisture.

The biomass allocation among I. parviflora sample plants collected from the site in the oak-hornbeam forest did not differ significantly from those taken from the oak-pine forest. However, the estimated seed productivity was 86,7039, seeds per plant and 104,8331,49 seeds per plant in the sample 4 and 5 respec tively, that is on average 40% higher than the seed productivity of I. parviflora from the sites of co-occurrence with the native congener.

Based on the results of the study it is unlikely for the alien I. parviflora to completely replace the indigenous I. noli-tangere from the sites of its natural occurrence. It was shown that the performance of I. parviflora was poorer in comparison with the native congener in the habitats, where they co-occur, and compared to populations I. parviflora occurring in the habitats with relatively lower soil moisture. However, there are at least two arguments towards further spread of I. parviflora into the habitats of I. noli-tangere. Those are extremely strong ecological plasticity of I. parviflora and the propagule pressure from neighboring sites, which can compensate to some extent the low seed productivity at sites with suboptimal ecological conditions. Moreover, such factors as decrease of soil moisture, which has been often documented during the last decades, and severe damages of leaves by insects, will facilitate the distinction of the native Impatiens species and establishment of its invasive congeners populations.

Table The traits compared among I. noli-tangere and I. parviflora Sample 1 (Theophania) Sample 2 (Holosiivskyi) SL, mm 558,9130,3 553,0130,3 346,862,0 344,083,8 463,568,7 344,2111, LWR 0,2720,083 0,2980,053 0,3780,058 0,4240,070 0,3020,075 0,4070, SWR 0,5860,075 0,5710,065 0,4720,058 0,4100,062 0,5550,079 0,4300, RWR 0,0910,022 0,1070,036 0,1070,025 0,1070,036 0,0660,022 0,1110, FWR 0,0520,024 0,0240,012 0,0430,016 0,0280,012 0,0770,024 0,0510, TDB, g 0,4060,246 0,7340,470 0,2690,111 0,5720,382 0,3060,116 0,3580, SP, 67,7940,85 29,7020,37 52,6420,27 51,3330,86 62,5416,88 36,9319, seeds

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BIOMASS ALLOCATION AND REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL IN NATIVE AND ALIEN IMPATIENS

SPECIES (BALSAMINACEAE) IN EASTERN EUROPE

»

II- - .. 28.09.2012. 60841/16. . Times New Roman. .

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